Jawaharlal Nehru first met Mahatma Gandhi in 1916 at the
Lucknow session of the Congress. It was to be the beginning of a lifelong partnership between the
lasted until the Gandhi's death.
The Lucknow session also first brought together the three men who would shape the destiny of the
subcontinent: Nehru, Jinnah, and Gandhi.
The Siege of Lucknow
This incident refers to one of the most prominent events of the first war of Indian independence of 1857.
By the last week of June 1857, troops of Oudh and Bengal went up in rebellion and along with the many rebel
locals , surrounded the main site of British establishment called the Residency,in the city of Lucknow.
This place was spread over 60 acres , consisted of 6 buildings,with garrison, artillery etc.
The first siege continued for 87 days , after which General Outram came from Kanpur with reinforcements.
He had hoped that the rebel fighters would lose hope on seing the new British reinforcements and thus
intended to evacuate all the Brtishers inside right way , but because the fighters continued with the
same spirit, he had to wait for several more weeks. The Residency
Thus the second siege lasted around 61 more days, after which most remaining Britishers managed to move away
under stealth to Kanpur.
After this incident Lucknow remained in the hands of the native fighters for several months before the recapture
During this siege , whose signs and remnants can still be seen at the Residency, the local fighters managed to
account for around 2500 British casualties, including Sir henry Lawrence, the British commissioner of the state
of Oudh, his successor, Major John Banks and Major General Henry Havelock among many others.
The Kakori Incident
Kakori is a village near Lucknow, where the famous train robbery was carried out on Aug 9 1925, by the members of
the Hindustan Republic Association(HRA).against the British Empire in India.
The main members who took part in this were Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri,
Chandrashekhar Azad, Sachindra Bakshi, Keshab Chakravarthy, Manmathnath Gupta, Murari Sharma
, Mukundi Lal and Banwari Lal.
They attacked the Number 8 down train from Saharanpur to Lucknow, which was carrying money bags of the
British Government.This would help in carrying out the future activities of the HRA during the freedom movement.
Not a single Indian passenger was hurt or looted during the entire event.
The Kakori trial
The Kakori incident added a new vigour to the independence movement in the country , but
it also irked the British Government badly . As a result , a huge nationwide hunt for all
the Hindustan Republic Association(HRA) members began.
In all 40 members were arrested and a court trial was started.
The trial was held on 21 May 1926 at the Ring Theatre , a building which was later converted to what is
now the General Post Office of Lucknow .
The defence for the accused in the case was provided by a committee which consisted of Gobind Ballabh Pant,
Mohan Lal Saxena, Chandra Bhanu Gupta, Ajit Prasad Jain, Gopi Nath Srivastava, R. M. Bahadurji and B. K.
Chaudhury and Kripa Shankar Hajela.
Pandit Jagat Narayan Mulla, a prominent advocate from Lucknow and brother
in law of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru refused to take up the defence of the arrested revolutionaries, due to
personal prejudice with Ram Prasad Bhismil. He was appointed as Public Prosecutor by the law of Court.
There were massive nationwide protests against the Court's decision of capital punishment to
Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Roshan Singh,
and members of the Central Legislature even petitioned the Viceroy of India to change it to life sentences.
This martyrdom eventually paved for an ever stronger and successful revolt against the British in India.
The Lucknow Kathak Gharaana
Kathak is one of the most prominent classical dance forms of India.
The Lucknow Kathak Gharaana is also known as Kalka-Bindadin gharaana , named after the two fampous sons of Pandit Thakur Prasad Maharaj
who was the guru and court dancer of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh,under whose patraonoge , this gharaana flourished.
The sons of Kalkadin Maharaj, namely Pt Lacchu Maharaj , Pt Shambhu Maharaj and Pt Acchan Maharaj took this gharaana to new heights,
Presently Pt Birju Maharaj(son of Pt Acchan Maharaj) is the proud flag bearer of this gharaana, which is known for the highly aesthetic dance movements, creative vocal comositions like
thumri, dadra and emotive expressions enacted thorough the face ,hands and the whole body.
refers to an agreement between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. In 1916, Muhammed
Ali Jinnah, from the Muslim League, negotiated with the Indian National Congress to reach an
agreement to pressure the British government to adopt a more liberal approach to India and give
Indians more authority to run their country. This was a change of policy for the Muslim League,
which beleived that to preserve Muslim interests in India, it needed to support British rule.
After the unpopular partition of Bengal, the Muslim League was confused about its stand .
The Lucknow Pact also marked the establishment of cordial relations between the two prominent groups of the
Indian National Congress - the bold, fierce leaders or 'garam dal' led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak,
and the moderates or the 'naram dal' led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
Formation of All India Kisan Sabha(AIKS)
The Kisan Sabha
movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati who had formed in 1929 the
Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS) to address the peasants' voices against the zamindari system
These developments culminated in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at
the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress on April 11, 1936 with Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
elected as its first President. It involved prominent leaders like N.G. Ranga, E.M.S. Namboodiripad,
Pandit Karyanand Sharma, Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Pandit Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma, Rahul Sankrityayan,
P. Sundarayya, Ram Manohar Lohia, Jayaprakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev and Bankim Mukerji.
The Kisan Manifesto released in August 1936, demanded abolition of zamindari system and cancellation
of rural debts, and in October 1937, it adopted red flag as its banner. Soon, its leaders became
increasingly distant with Congress, and repeatedly came in confrontation with Congress governments,
in Bihar and United Province.